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The present treatise attempts a connected history of some of the Ksatriya clans in ancient India in the time of the Buddha, viz., the Licchavis, the Videhas, the Mallas, the shakayas, and some minor clans. This part of the history of India has up to now received very scant attention from historians. Dr Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India simply mentions these clans. The Hinayana Buddhist literature contains a good many reference to the important clans under review, while the Mahayana Buddhist literature is very poor in this respect. So far as the minor clans are concerned, the northern Buddhist literature is silent, while the southern Buddhist literature records a very meagre account of them. Sanskrit literature is of no great help to us. I have consulted the Tibetan literature as well as the works of English, French and German authors. In translating the texts, I have tried to be as much literal as possible, and I have retained the translators' language in making use of the English translations.
Recently I wrote a paper on the Licchavis in ancient India which has been published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series. Vol. XVII. 1921.No. 3) where I tried to give a brief history of them. I am indebted to Mahimahopidhyaya Hara Prasad Shastri, C.I.E.,M.A. and Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar, M.A.. Ph. D. whose sound advice and valuable suggestions I readily availed of while the paper was passing through the press.